Gingivitis is the infection and/or inflammation of gum tissue (gingiva) that is visible to the eye appearing as bleeding sore and reddish gum tissue. Periodontitis is the infection and inflammation of all tooth-supporting tissues (gingiva, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament) which gives rise to deep gingival pockets, tooth mobility,soreness and abcess formation. It is commonly chronic in nature and will progress to destroy the tooth-supporting tissues if not treated. The affected teeth will eventually have to be extracted. The primary cause of gingivitis and periodontitis is bacterial plaque, a consequence of poor oral hygiene. Risk factors for gingivitis and periodontitis include smoking, diabetes, poor access for oral hygiene (e.g. tooth crowding, poorly fitted crowns and bridges) and bruxism (clenching and grinding). Gingivitis is easy to treat and the gingival tissue returns to health rather fast following proper professional and home oral care. Periodontitis, however requires more elaborate treatment to stop the progression of periodontal damage, eliminate symptoms and improve function. If you experience bleeding, puffy gums, loose teeth, or bad taste in your mouth, you may have gum disease. We will provide a professional assessment of your gums and other periodontal tissues and recommend the appropriate treatment and oral care measures. The non-surgical treatment of scaling and root planing will be carried out by our experienced hygienist or dentist, while referral to a periodontist will be made if surgical approach is deemed necessary. Regular maintenance visits to the office is paramount for the continued care and the achievement of best results.